Using information fairly and acknowledging sources accurately is an essential part of any research project. Citations provide information to help readers locate the sources you use and provide a way for you to credit other scholars for their original ideas or findings. Most researchers use style guides or manuals to format their citations in a consistent way so their readers can quickly identify and locate cited sources.
You should always check with your instructor, thesis advisor, or publisher to see which style you should use for your research project. But there are some popular citation styles that are used by specific fields:
There are also styles from professional associations for specific disciplines, such as the American Sociological Association or the American Chemical Society. View our list of Other Style Guides for links to these resources.
Specific journals may have their own styles, or may adapt common styles such as APA or Chicago. Check the author guidelines for details about how to format your submission.