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COVID-19 Vaccines

Information resources about the COVID-19 Vaccinations

COVID-19 Vaccine


The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has authorized the Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, and Janssen (Johnson & Johnson) vaccines for Emergency Use Authorization. Public vaccinations began December 14, 2020.

Researchers are currently testing 67 vaccines in clinical trials on humans, and 20 have reached the final stages of testing. At least 89 preclinical vaccines are under active investigation in animals.

For information on all of the vaccine trials, see the New York Times COVID-19 Vaccine Tracker or on MedlinePlus COVID-19 Vaccines.

How are Vaccines Made?

U.S. FDA Emergency Use Authorization

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s advisory committee met on December 10 to review the safety and efficacy of the first COVID-19 vaccine candidate for Emergency Use Authorization (EUA): Pfizer-BioNTech. Following an affirmative vote by the vaccine advisory panel, the FDA granted emergency authorization of the vaccine for people 16 and older. The vaccinations started being administered on December 14, 2020. On December 18, 2020, the FDA issued an emergency use authorization for the Moderna vaccine as well, for individuals 18 and older. On February 27, 2021, the FDA issued emergency use authorization for the Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine (of Johnson & Johnson) to be distributed for adults 18 and older.

For more information on the vaccine Emergency Use Authorization process, see the FDA website or the FDA Vaccine Fact Sheet.

Operation Warp Speed

Operation Warp Speed (OWS), an initiative of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), has a goal of producing and delivering 300 million doses of safe and effective vaccines, with initial doses available by January 2021, as part of a broader strategy to accelerate the development, manufacturing, and distribution of COVID-19 vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics.

For more information on OWS, see the HHS Fact Sheet.

Subject Specialist

Kaitlyn Van Kampen's picture
Kaitlyn Van Kampen
Kathleen A. Zar Clinical Library Resident
John Crerar Library
Room 155

University of Chicago Resources

COVID-19 Resource Guide

FDA Press Conferences on COVID-19 Vaccines